Anaesthesia at The Children's Hospital at Westmead: Information for Professionals

The Children’s Hospital at Westmead is the largest paediatric hospital in NSW and the Department of Anaesthesia provides anaesthetics for more than 14,000 children per year.

Contact details

Departmental secretary: Lisa Meehan

Supervisors of training: Sally Wharton and Jenny Chien

Fellowships: Andrew Weatherall and Ramanie Jayaweera

Research: Jonathan De Lima and Justin Skowno

Our department is staffed with 35 paediatric specialist anaesthetists, 5 fellows and 10-12 registrars.

If you are looking for general information about Anaesthetics, try our service page. We have listings there for services at both hospitals. This page is mainly for researchers and professionals.

Clinical Services

  • Anaesthesia for both elective and emergency surgery in the Operating Suite and Day Surgery Unit. Subspecialities include cardiac, neurosurgical, spinal, craniofacial, multi-level orthopaedic, thoracic, transplant and complex ENT anaesthesia.
  • Anaesthesia for Medical Imaging (MRI, CT and interventional radiology) and in the Oncology Treatment Centre
  • 24 hour acute pain management service including daily acute pain rounds and consultation for complex acute and chronic pain problems
  • Support to the Burns Unit for provision of sedation and general anaesthesia for burns dressing changes, wound debridement and skin grafting
  • Pre-admission clinics for more complex paediatric patients
  • Emergency resuscitation services to wards and Emergency Department
  • Consultation service for difficult peripheral and central venous access
  • Liver transplant service, performing up to 15 paediatric transplants annually
  • Malignant Hyperthermia testing unit for NSW and QLD
  • Close liaison with paediatric and neonatal intensive care units

History of the Department

Early Days

The hospital originated as the Sydney Hospital for Sick Children at Glebe in 1880 and officially became the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children (RAHC) in 1904. It moved to the Camperdown site in 1906 where it remained for 99 years and was commonly known as the Children’s Hospital at Camperdown. In 1995 the hospital moved to a new site at Westmead, amalgamating with the paediatric services from Westmead Hospital and was initially named the New Children’s Hospital, subsequently becoming the Children’s Hospital at Westmead. In 2013, following the Garling Report, the two children’s hospitals in Sydney were united under a common network but function as separate entities.

For many years anaesthesia was considered a minor service and consisted of basic open drop ether or chloroform and was administered by junior members of the medical staff. Sometimes ‘surgeon’ and ‘anaesthetist’ would swap roles half way through an operating list. Sir Robert Wade published the second thesis for a Doctorate of Medicine on anaesthesia in Australia in 1906 on the safe use of ether in children.

In the 1920’s and 1930’s techniques included nitrous oxide anaesthesia, ethylene and intravenous barbiturates. In 1940 Dr Andrew Distin Morgan was appointed and he became one of the founders of paediatric anaesthesia as a subspecialty in Australia.

Formation of a Department

In 1947, the Department of Anaesthesia was one of the first in Australia to be formally established with Drs Morgan, Bartrop, Beaumont and Sara.  In 1955 Dr Verlie Lines was appointed as the first fulltime staff anaesthetist.

The 1950’s to the 1970’s were decades of great development with the advent of cardiac surgery and airway endoscopy and increase in all areas of paediatric surgery. In 1959 the first Director of the Department was appointed, the first registrar training in paediatric anaesthesia was appointed and the first open heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass was performed.

During this time the first recovery ward was opened in 1962 and ultimately functioned as an intensive care unit for postoperative cases with supervision from Dr John Overton. The formal Intensive Care Unit was established in 1975. In 1969 the Inhalational Therapy Unit was established by Drs Charles Sara and Verlie Lines to improve paediatric oxygen therapy, ventilation and airway support. This unit remains an integral part of hospital services today.

Further specific developments that have occurred where the Department has provided anaesthetic services and support are:

  • National Liver Transplant Unit in 1986
  • The Vincent Fairfax Pain Unit in 1990 which has developed into the Department of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care
  • The first academic position in paediatric anaesthesia in Australia with John Overton being made Clinical Associate Professor within the University of Sydney in 1991
  • The Malignant Hyperthermia Unit for NSW was developed within the Department in 2002

Anaesthesia in Australia today is a specialty with training equal to that of surgery and medicine and has one of the best safety records in the world. Paediatric anaesthesia often involves further training in the special needs of babies, infants and children undergoing major surgery.

Directors / Heads of the Department

Years

Dr J George Lomaz

1959 - 1978

Clinical Assoc Prof John H Overton

1978 - 1998

Dr John P Keneally

1998 - 2002

Clinical Assoc Prof David B Baines

2002 - 2016

Dr Neil Street

2016 - present

Acute Pain Service

The pain unit was founded by Drs Henry Kilham, John Keneally and Julie McEnierny in 1990 following a generous donation from the Vincent Fairfax family trust. The unit has evolved into the  Department of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care (DPMPC) and is now led by Dr John Collins. It supports three training fellowship positions and employs a Nurse Practitioner and five clinical nurse consultants. The DPMPC provides acute pain management, complex and chronic pain services, procedural sedation services, palliative care and bereavement support. The DPMPC is a nominated ‘supporting tier 3 centre’ in the NSW State Pain Management Plan (2012).

The Department of Anaesthesia and the DPMPC work closely together running a 24-hour acute pain service. The service includes daily ward rounds by a multidisciplinary team. The pain team guides the ongoing pain management of children after surgery to ensure they are as comfortable as possible. They also help care for children with other acute complex pain issues.

Visit Pain Management for more information.

Teaching and training

The Department of Anaesthesia is recognised by ANZCA for training in paediatric anaesthesia. The Department is involved in the training of registrars, provisional fellows, medical students and non-anaesthetic professionals.

Registrars

  • 10-12 per term
  • Four and six month rotations
  • Supervised exposure to both simple and more complex cases
  • Pre-assessment clinic attendance
  • Paediatric acute pain round participation
  • Rostered overtime
  • 12 week program of protected afternoon tutorials
  • Opportunity to present at the weekly departmental meetings (journal club)
  • Comprehensive local handbook of paediatric anaesthesia
  • Part II tutorials for exam preparation
  • Formal Viva practice for those taking part 2 exams

Fellowship program

  • One year program
  • Starting times in February and July each year
  • Exposure to complex cases including neurosurgery, spinal (scoliosis) surgery, craniofacial surgery, multi-level orthopaedic surgery, complex ENT cases, neonatal surgery, renal/liver transplant surgery and cardiac surgery
  • Rotation through Burns Unit (sedation for dressing changes)
  • Fellow-led burns procedure list
  • Acute pain rounds
  • On-call: regular first on-call experience and rotational weekly liver on-call roster
  • 10 week PICU secondment
  • Opportunity to
    • present at weekly departmental meetings
    • attend registrar teaching program
    • be involved in research and other projects
    • be involved in teaching, for example VIVA preparation for Part II candidates
    • Advertised twice yearly on NSW Health website (JMO recruitment) http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/jmo/pages/default.aspx
    • For further details please contact Ramanie Jayaweera and Andrew Weatherall

Non-anaesthetic professionals

  • An opportunity for overseas and local anaesthetists to gain skills in paediatric anaesthesia
  • ED and PICU trainees for airway skills

Medical students

  • University of Sydney medical school
  • 1-2 week placement

Research

The department actively supports research in paediatric anaesthesia at a clinical and basic sciences level. The Research Interest Group meets regularly to discuss current and planned projects, as well as to act as a forum for learning the fundamentals of research.

Specific areas of interest or expertise include acute and chronic pain, malignant hyperthermia, cardiovascular physiology, cerebral and tissue oximetry utilizing near infrared spectroscopy and acute traumatic brain injury.

Functioning within the Kids Research Institute, and linked to the University of Sydney, the department has access to expertise in clinical trial design, statistics, laboratory analyses, the Westmead Animal Vivarium, and research grant funding assistance.  

Fellows joining the department are encouraged to participate in a research or clinical audit project during their year.

Convenor of the Research Interest Group: Dr Jonathan De Lima

Current research /projects

An Open label Pilot Study of Feasibility of a Dexmedetomidine -Remifentanil - Caudal Anaesthetic for Infant lower Abdominal/lower Extremity Surgery: The TREX Pilot Study. Davison, Skowno

Neonatal cerebral Oximetry during anaesthesia and surgery - prospective observational study. Skowno, Davidson, Kurth

Pain following amputation in children - retrospective review. Hale, Haynes, Hankin

Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity - case report. Duong, McDonald, De Lima

Level 2 Machine check survey. Kenig, Ross

MOMIS II - Nitrate and Nitrite levels in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass - prospective observational study. Ceely, Egan, Winlaw, S Cooper, Skowno

Cyanotic Congenital Heart disease - the role of nitrogen species in adaptation to hypoxaemia - prospective observational study. De Lima, O'Shaughnessy, Skowno

Retrospective epidural anaesthesia audit. McLean, Cannons, Bennett, Wong

NIRS in out-of hospital resuscitation (retrieval) - prospective observational study. Weatherall, Garner, Egan

Impact of caudal anaesthesia on perfusion index readings in children - prospective observational study. Perera, Ross, Skowno

Neovent Study - Audit of neonatal ventilation during anaesthesia. Marchesini, Davidson, Skowno

3-D Printing of paediatric airway models - 3D PASS. Weatherall

Procedural Sedation in Burns Unit – audit. Heo, Chan, Miles

Tranexamic acid use in paediatric craniofacial surgery. A 10 year retrospective cohort analysis of blood loss, transfusion requirements and outcomes. Alistair, Janet, Cooper

Implementation of a new PACU pain protocol – audit. Teisseyre, Perera, De Lima

Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting Audit. Koh, Kenig

The incidence of isoelectric EEG during neonatal anaesthesia and surgery - a prospective, observational, multinational study. Kurth, Skowno, Regli von Ungern

Automated prediction of serious complications following paediatric cardiac surgery using digitally collecting vital signs information – pilot study. Skowno, McEwan, De Chazal

TREX main project -Neurodevelopmental outcome after sevoflurane versus dexmedetomidine/remifentanil anaesthesia in infancy: a randomised controlled trial. Davidson, Skowno et al

A survey of parental satisfaction with preoperative fasting for day of surgery admissions. McPhee, Kamalasena

Impact of paediatric surgery requiring general anaesthesia on child neurodevelopment – cohort study. Nassar, Lain, Badawi

The PIE Study -Perioperative Immersive Experiences in Paediatric Anaesthesia – prospective observational study. Weatherall, Menezes, Wong

Publications (last 10 years)

The articles below relate to paediatric anaesthesia, pain management and intensive care and other areas of anaesthesia published by department members. The publications reflect their contributions to the medical literature and their specific areas of expertise when they worked in the department.

2016

Skowno JJ, Karpelowsky JS, Watts NR, Little DG. Can transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy detect severe hepatic ischemia: a juvenile porcine model.Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Dec;26(12):1188-1196. PMID: 27663858

Krishnamohan A, Siriwardana V, Skowno JJ. Using a pulse oximeter to determine clinical depth of anesthesia-investigation of the utility of the perfusion index.Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Nov;26(11):1106-1111. PMID: 27569026

Suemori T, Skowno J, Horton S, Bottrell S, Butt W, Davidson AJ. Cerebral oxygen saturation and tissue hemoglobin concentration as predictive markers of early postoperative outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Feb;26(2):182-9. PMID: 26619804

Cooper MG, Wake PB, Morriss WW, Cargill PD, McDougall RJ. Global safe anaesthesia and surgery initiatives: implications for anaesthesia in the Pacific region.Anaesth Intensive Care 2016 May;44(3):420-4.PMID: 27246944

Doyle MP, Li A, Villanueva CI, Peeceeyen SC, Cooper MG, Hanel KC, Fermanis GG, Robertson G. Treatment of intravenous leiomyomatosis with cardiac extension following incomplete resection. Int J Vasc Med 2015;2015:756141. PMID: 26783463 

Garner AA, Lee A, Weatherall A, Langcake M, Balogh ZJ. Physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service case identification - a before and after study in children. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016 Jul 12;24:92. PMID: 27405354

Mulvany JJ, Weatherall A, Charlton A, Selvadurai H. Congenital lobar emphysema: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Jun 22;2016. PMID: 27335360

Milligan J, Lee A, Gill M, Weatherall A, Tetlow C, Garner AA. Performance comparison of improvised prehospital blood warming techniques and a commercial blood warmer. Injury. 2016 Aug;47(8):1824-7. PMID: 27289451

Cooper MG, Ball CM, Thirlwell JR (eds). History of Anaesthesia VIII. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on the History of Anaesthesia. Australian Society of Anaesthetists, Sydney, 2016, p794. ISBN: 978-0-646-95069-3

Morris GP, Cooper MG. Anaesthesia and the wounded in the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Gallipoli, Wolrd War 1. In, Cooper MG, Ball CM, Thirlwell JR (eds). History of Anaesthesia VIII. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on the History of Anaesthesia. Australian Society of Anaesthetists, Sydney, 2016, p794. ISBN: 978-0-646-95069-3

Graves M, Cooper MG. Anaesthesia at a casualty clearing station: Review of an Australian anaesthetist’s role in the Great War. In, Cooper MG, Ball CM, Thirlwell JR (eds). History of Anaesthesia VIII. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on the History of Anaesthesia. Australian Society of Anaesthetists, Sydney, 2016, p794. ISBN: 978-0-646-95069-3

Dr Gail Wong, Dr Rowena Lee. Refractory hypotension in an autistic child on risperidoneThe Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Anaesthesia C ases / 2017-0008 / ISSN 2396-8397 Published: 07 Feb 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.21466/ac.RHUAIAA.2017 2017-0008 

L-carnitine reduces susceptibility to bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity: an experimental study in rats/ auth. Gail K. Wong Carolyne Pehora, Mark W. Crawford // REPORTS OF ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth (2017) 64. - 2017. - Vol. 64. - pp. 270–279.

2015

Skowno J, Vutskits L, McGowan F, Kurth CD. Staying away from the edge - cerebral oximetry guiding blood pressure management. Paediatr Anaesth. 2015 Jul;25(7):654-5. PMID: 26053770

Cooper MG, Ball CM. Presenting and getting published in the history of anaesthesia-why and where? Anaesth Intensive Care. 2015 Jul;43 Suppl:2-3. PMID: 26126069

Cooper MG, Morris G. ANZAC doctors at Gallipoli and their contributions to anaesthesia in Australia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2014 Jul;42 Suppl:25-31. PMID: 25196956

Garner AA, Barker CL, Weatherall AD. Retrospective evaluation of prehospital triage, presentation, interventions and outcome in paediatric drowning managed by a physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015 Nov 6;23:92. PMID: 26545870

Garner AA, Mann KP, Poynter E, Weatherall A, Dashey S, Puntis M, Gebski V. Prehospital response model and time to CT scan in blunt trauma patients; an exploratory analysis of data from the head injury retrieval trial. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015 Mar 20;23:28. PMID: 25886844

Cooper MG, Morris G. Medical students at war. In, Healy J. Compassion and Courage. Australian Doctors and Dentists in the Great War. Medical History Museum, University of Melbourne, 2015,p 116.

2014

Weatherall A, Garner A, Lovell N, Redmond S, Lee A, Skowno J, Egan J. Study protocol for the PHANTOM study: prehospital assessment of noninvasive tissue oximetry monitoring. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2014 Oct 3;22:57. PMID: 25280485

Skowno JJ, Karpelowsky JS. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring renal transplant perfusion. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Nov;29(11):2241-2. PMID: 25119681

Skowno JJ, Quick TJ, Carpenter EC, De Lima J, Gibbons PJ, Little DG. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of vascular compromise in paediatric supracondylar fractures. Physiol Meas. 2014 Mar;35(3):471-81.  PMID: 24557027

Scrivener TA, Ross SM, Street NE, Webster RI, De Lima JC. A case series of general anesthesia in children with laminin alpha2 (merosin)-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014 Apr;24(4):464-5. PMID: 24628934

Herbert AR, de Lima J, Fitzgerald DA, Seton C, Waters KA, Collins JJ. Exploratory study of sleeping patterns in children admitted to hospital. J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Aug;50(8):632-8. PMID: 24893889

Barker CL, Weatherall AD. Prehospital paediatric emergencies treated by an Australian helicopter emergency medical service. Eur J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr;21(2):130-5. PMID: 23743536

Löllgen RM, Webster P, Lei E, Weatherall A. Delayed sequence intubation for management of respiratory failure in a 6-year-old child in a paediatric emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2014 Jun;26(3):308-9. PMID: 24712856

2013

Pandit C, Valentin R, De Lima J, Robinson P, Fitzgerald D, van Asperen P, Baines D, Cooper P, Selvadurai H. Effect of general anesthesia on pulmonary function and clinical status on children with cystic fibrosis. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Sep 4. doi: 10.1111/pan.12256. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 24004189

Liao AY, Levin B, Daniel M, Chan L, Cooper MG, Birman CS. Emergency EXIT: an urgent ex utero intrapartum tracheostomy for giant fetal neck mass. ANZ J Surg. 2013;83:684-5  PMID:23998466

Skowno JJ. Perfusion index changes during emergence from anaesthesia in children.Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013;41:556-7. PMID:23808523

Barker CL, Weatherall AD. Prehospital paediatric emergencies treated by an Australian helicopter emergency medical service. Eur J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun 5. PMID:23743536

Marland S, Ellerton J, Andolfatto G, Strapazzon G, Thomassen O, Brandner B, Weatherall A, Paal P. Ketamine: use in anesthesia. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013;19:381-9.  PMID:23521979

Elliott AD, Skowno J, Prabhu M, Noakes TD, Ansley L. Evidence of cardiac functional reserve upon exhaustion during incremental exercise to determine VO2max. Br J Sports Med. 2013 Jan 4.  PMID:23293009

McDonald J, Cooper MG, Street N. Contributors. Handbook of Pediatric Dentistry 4th ed, eds Cameron A, Widmer R.Mosby, 2013.

Santoro AS, Cooper MG. Failed intubation and oxygenation in a child – reply. Anaesth Intens care 2013; 41: 429. PMID: 23659409

Bailey RJ. On the origin of the first Australian Medical Journal. Anaesth Intens Care 2013; 41: Suppl 1:7-9. PMID:23808555

2012

Santoro AS, Cooper MG, Cheng A. Failed intubation and failed oxygenation in a child. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2012;40:1056-8. PMID: 23194217

Comment in: Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013 May;41(3):429; PMID: 23659409, Comment in: Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013 May;41(3):428-9; PMID: 23659408

Howe PW, Cooper MG. Blood loss and replacement for paediatric cranioplasty in Australia - a prospective national audit. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2012;40:107-13. PMID:22313069

Holtby H, Skowno JJ, Kor DJ, Flick RP, Uezono S. New technologies in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22:952-61.  PMID:22967152

Garner AA, Lee A, Weatherall A. Physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service dispatch via centralised control or directly by crew - case identification rates and effect on the Sydney paediatric trauma system. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;20:82. PMID:23244708

Elliott AD, Skowno J, Prabhu M, Ansley L. Measurement of cardiac output during exercise in healthy, trained humans using lithium dilution and pulse contour analysis. Physiol Meas. 2012;33:1691-701  PMID:22986506

Weatherall A, Skowno J, Lansdown A, Lupton T, Garner A. Feasibility of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring in the pre-hospital environment. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56:172-7. PMID:22236344

Cooper MG. We’ll drink to that: the 200th anniversary of Australia's oldest hospital. Med J Aust. 2012;196:316. PMID:22536601

Singh M, Jacob R, Naik V, Baines D. Separation of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital: Perioperative management. Indian J Anaesth 2012; 56: 442-7.

2011

Murphy A, Campbell DE, Baines D, Mehr S. Allergic reactions to propofol in egg-allergic children. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:140-4 PMID: 21467558

Baines D. Anaesthetic considerations for the obese child.Paediatr Respir Rev. 2011;12:144-7. PMID:21458744

Skowno J. Correlating cerebral NIRS and superior vena cava ScvO2 in pediatrics.Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21:463.  PMID:21371168

Waddell LB, Lemckert FA, Zheng XF, Tran J, Evesson FJ, Hawkes JM, Lek A, Street NE, Lin P, Clarke NF, Landstrom AP, Ackerman MJ, Weisleder N, Ma J, North KN, Cooper ST.

Dysferlin, annexin A1, and mitsugumin 53 are upregulated in muscular dystrophy and localize to longitudinal tubules of the T-system with stretch. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:302-13.  PMID:21412170

Padley JR. Cole AD. Pye VE. Chard RB. Nicholson IA. Jacobe S. Baines D. Badawi N. Walker K. Scarfe G. Leclair K. Sholler GF. Winlaw DS.  Five-year analysis of operative mortality and neonatal outcomes in congenital heart disease. Heart, Lung & Circulation. 20(7):460-7, 2011 Jul. PMID: 21514216

Cooper MG, Todd EM. The Huxleys, the Rattlesnake, Romance and Australian Anaesthesia in the 1840s. In: Askitopoulou H, ed. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium for the History of Anaesthesia, Crete University Press, 2012; 126-138.

2010

Baines D. Anaesthetic considerations for the obese child.

Paediatr Respir Rev. 2011 Jun;12(2):144-7. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2010.10.002. Epub 2010 Nov 20. Review. PMID:

21458744

De Lima J, Carmo KB. Practical pain management in the neonate.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2010;24:291-307. PMID: 21033008

Weatherall A, Venclovas R. Experience with a propofol-ketamine mixture for sedation during pediatric orthopedic surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:1009-16. PMID: 20964766

Yang J, Cooper MG. Compartment syndrome and patient-controlled analgesia in children--analgesic complication or early warning system? Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010; 38:359-63. PMID: 20369773

Brooker GE, Cooper MG. Airway management for infants with severe micrognathia having mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:43-9. PMID: 20191776

de Lima J, Cooper MG. Managing minor procedural pain – honesty, confidence and speed. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health in General Practice 2010;11: 26-27.

Slater ME, De Lima J, Campbell K, Lane L, Collins J. Opioids for the management of severe chronic nonmalignant pain in children: a retrospective 1-year practice survey in a children's hospital. Pain Med. 2010;11:207-14. PMID:20002597

Clarke NF. Waddell LB. Cooper ST. Perry M. Smith RL. Kornberg AJ. Muntoni F. Lillis S. Straub V. Bushby K. Guglieri M. King MD. Farrell MA. Marty I. Lunardi J. Monnier N. North KN. Recessive mutations in RYR1 are a common cause of congenital fiber type disproportion. Human Mutation 2010; 31(7):E1544-50. PMID: 20583297

Murrell D. Contributor. Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence. 3rd ed, 2010. Australian & new Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Medicine, Melbourne.

2009

Fong C, Fung W, McDonald J, Dalla-Pozza L, De Lima J. Anesthesia for children with hyperleukocytosis a retrospective review. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19:1191-8. PMID: 19761510

Rains PC, Rampersad N, De Lima J, Murrell D, Kinchington D, Lee JW, Maguire AM, Donaghue KC. Cortisol response to general anaesthesia for medical imaging in children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:834-9. PMID:19508604

McDonald JM. The gender revolution we had to have. In, Riley R, ed.  Australasian Anaesthesia. ANZCA Melbourne 2009, pp 77-82.

Egan JR. Butler TL. Cole AD. Abraham S. Murala JS. Baines D. Street N. Thompson L. Biecker O. Dittmer J. Cooper S. Au CG. North KN. Winlaw DS.

Myocardial membrane injury in pediatric cardiac surgery: An animal model. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery.2009; 137:1154-62. PMID: 19379983

Swart J. Lamberts RP. Lambert MI. St Clair Gibson A. Lambert EV. Skowno J. Noakes TD. Exercising with reserve: evidence that the central nervous system regulates prolonged exercise performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009;43(10):782-8. PMID: 19052141

Rathore KS, Cooper MG, Manganas C. Limited excision of a right atrial lipoma. Heart Lung Circ 2009 Oct;18(5):370-1. PMID: 18672399

2008

Egan JR. Butler TL. Cole AD. Aharonyan A. Baines D. Street N. Navaratnam M. Biecker O. Zazulak C. Au CG. Tan YM. North KN. Winlaw DS. Myocardial ischemia is more important than the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on myocardial water handling and postoperative dysfunction: a pediatric animal model.  Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery. 136(5):1265-73, 1273.e1-2, 2008 Nov. PMID: 19026813

Skowno JJ, Broadhead M. Cardiac output measurement in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18:1019-28 PMID:18717806

Cooper MG, Corlette T. Dr Corlette and the first textbook of regional anaesthesia in Australia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008;36 Suppl 1:7-11. PMID: 18724552

Cooper MG, McDonald J, Street N. Contributors. Handbook of Pediatric Dentistry 3rd ed, eds Cameron A, Widmer R.Mosby, 2008. Thirlwell J, Duncan AW. A serious case of extensive plagiarism in the July 2008 Symposium on Anaesthesia History. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2009 Jul;37 Suppl 1:5. PMID: 19705628 

2007

Aplin S, Baines D, De Lima J. Use of the ASA Physical Status Grading System in pediatric practice. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17:216-22. PMID: 17263735

Cooper MG. A bibliography of articles on the history of anaesthesia and medicine in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 1972-2005. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007 Jun;35 Suppl 1:37-42. PMID: 17595902

Cooper MG. Writing Group. Therapeutic Guidelines – Analgesic. Ver 5, 2007. Therapeutic Guidelines Ltd, Victoria.

2006

Gibson PR, Johnston S, Lagopoulos J, Cummine JL. Transient loss of motor-evoked responses associated with caudal injection of morphine in a patient with spondylolisthesis undergoing spinal fusion. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:568-72. PMID: 16677268

Lee A, Cooper MG, Craig JC, Knight JF, Keneally JP. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on postoperative renal function in adults with normal renal function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD002765. PMID:17443518

Cooper MG, de Lima J. Pain in children – we can manage it better now. Medicine Today 2006; 7: 40-49

Cooper MG, Morris RW. Vale the index. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34:711-12. PMID:20297552

Cooper MG. "The Anaesthetist" 1933--an iconic Australian medical photograph. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34 Suppl 1:3-5. PMID:16800221

Cooper MG. The Agony – Surgery before Anaesthesia. The Patient’s Perspective. In, Anaesthesia: Awakening the Sleeping Giant, eds Richards PAC, Ogden PN. Myola Publishing, Launceston, Tasmania. 2006. pp33-44.

Cooper MG. A Brief Chronology: Milestones in Anaesthesia. In, Anaesthesia: Awakening the Sleeping Giant, eds Richards PAC, Ogden PN. Myola Publishing, Launceston, Tasmania. 2006. pp 59-63.

Cooper MG. Anaesthesia – Its Contributions to Modern Medicine. In, Anaesthesia: Awakening the Sleeping Giant, eds Richards PAC, Ogden PN. Myola Publishing, Launceston, Tasmania. 2006. pp 87-91.

Outreach

The Department has a long history of providing assistance to less well-developed countries including Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, East Timor, Rwanda, Cambodia, Burma and India. This assistance consists of being part of volunteer teams treating congenital heart disease and other paediatric surgical conditions.